The title deed in Turkey is called "Tapu". It is an official and legal document to prove ownership rights of a property. It registers the location, owner, type, size information of the property.
The authority of the title deed registry and archive is the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (Tapu ve Kadastro Genel Müdürlüğü - TKGM). There are title deed offices of TKGM in every city in Turkey. TKGM is a heritage institution of the Ottoman Empire to the young Turkish Republic as one of the oldest corporate is established in 1847 as Defterhane-i Amire.
There are 3 commonly used types of title deeds in Turkey. The title deed process depends on the current stage of the property. These title deeds are;
Easement Title Deed: This type of title deed is made with the owner and building constructor. They register each section of the property separately, in the sense that a suitable project is planned for construction on a designated piece of land, then the approval of the construction is taken.
Floor Easement (Kat İrtifakı) Title Deed: This
is the title deed dividing the project is divided into separate sections. After
70% of the construction is complete, the land registry office briefly proofs
that the entire building has been constructed in accordance with the Building
The building contractors usually present the properties of the building to be sold to the buyer through this register, in a form in which the features are accurately indicated with details, and after the construction is completed, the contractor applies for full ownership for each title deed.
Ownership (Kat Mülkiyeti) Title Deed: After the construction is complete, this title deed registers the ownership and designates independent sections. Landlords receive it after obtaining housing approval from the municipality, to comply with the project to the Turkish standards and criteria for housing and residence, where the owners have no legal problem furthermore.
How Does Title Deed Conveyance Process Work in Turkey?
Title deed conveyance occurs at title deed offices regarding the seller’s application. Applications are accepted on weekdays until noontime. Buyers do not have to be present at the title deed office during the application.
Required documents for title deed conveyance are as follows:
• The translation and the original buyer’s passport,
• Buyer’s tax number,
• Statement of identity information form,
• Appraisal report,
• Current title deed,
• Seller’s ID
Seller takes the required documents to the title deed office while going for title deed conveyance application. Within the time frame between the application and the final signatures, title deed expenses must be paid. Expenses include title deed conveyance tax, stamp taxes, and circulating capital.
After preparing title deed conveyance documents, the title deed office invites both parties for final signatures by sending an SMS that clarifies the date and time of the appointment. The appointment date depends on the work volume at the title deed office, mostly the same day in the afternoon, within two days at the latest. If any of the parties is a foreigner, a sworn interpreter must be present at the title deed office to explain the terms of the conveyance to the party since the papers are prepared only in the Turkish language. After the seller and buyer sign the title deed conveyance agreement, the title deed is printed by the officers and given to the buyer.